THE NSSM 200 DIRECTIVE AND THE STUDY REQUESTED
This chapter begins with the National Security
Study Memorandum (NSSM) directive itself, signed in April, 1974, by Henry Kissinger
on behalf of President Nixon. Then follows the Executive Summary of the report
of the study conducted in response to the directive. The copiously detailed
main body of the report consists of two parts, and can be found in Appendix 2.
The complete report was presented to President Ford the
following December. Following the Executive Summary, in this chapter several
important points from the report are listed which do not appear in the Summary.
These points are discussed elsewhere in the book.
NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20506
April 24, 1974
National Security Study Memorandum 200
TO: The Secretary of Defense
The Secretary of Agriculture
The Director of Central Intelligence
The Deputy Secretary of State
Administrator, Agency for International Development
SUBJECT: Implications of Worldwide Population Growth for U.S.
Security and Overseas Interests
The President has directed a study of the impact of world popula-
tion growth on U.S. security and overseas interests. The study
should look forward at least until the year 2000, and use several
alternative reasonable projections of population growth.
In terms of each projection, the study should assess:
- the corresponding pace of development, especially in poorer
- the demand for US exports, especially of food, and the trade
problems the US may face arising from competition for re-
- the likelihood that population growth or imbalances will
produce disruptive foreign policies and international insta-
The study should focus on the international political and economic
implications of population growth rather than its ecological, socio-
logical or other aspects.
The study would then offer possible courses of action for the United
States in dealing with population matters abroad, particularly in
developing countries, with special attention to these questions:
- What, if any, new initiatives by the United States are needed
to focus international attention on the population problem?
- Can technological innovations or development reduce
growth or ameliorate its effects?
- Could the United States improve its assistance in the popu-
lation field and if so, in what form and through which agen-
cies -- bilateral, multilateral, private?
The study should take into account the President's concern that
population policy is a human concern intimately related to the
dignity of the individual and the objective of the United States is to
work closely with others, rather than seek to impose our views on
The President has directed that the study be accomplished by the
NSC Under Secretaries Committee. The Chairman, Under Secre-
taries Committee, is requested to forward the study together with
the Committee's action recommendations no later than May 29,
1974 for consideration by the President.
HENRY A. KISSINGER
cc: Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff
IMPLICATIONS OF WORLDWIDE POPULATION GROWTH
FOR U.S. SECURITY AND OVERSEAS INTERESTS
December 10, 1974
CLASSIFIED BY Harry C. Blaney, III
SUBJECT TO GENERAL DECLASSIFICATION SCHEDULE OF
EXECUTIVE ORDER 11652 AUTOMATICALLY DOWN-
GRADED AT TWO YEAR INTERVALS AND DECLASSIFIED
ON DECEMBER 31, 1980.
This document can only be declassified by the White House.
Declassified/Released on 7/3/89
under provisions of E.O. 12356
by F. Graboske, National Security Council
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Executive Summary 65 - 82
(Reader: For Parts One and Two, see Appendix 2)
Part One -- Analytical Section
Chapter I World Demographic Trends
Chapter II Population and World Food Supplies
Chapter III Minerals and Fuel
Chapter IV Economic Development and
Chapter V Implications of Population Pressures
for National Security
Chapter VI World Population Conference
Part Two -- Policy Recommendations
Section I A U.S. Global Population Strategy
Section II Action to Create Conditions for Fertility De-
cline: Population and a Development Assis-
A. General Strategy and Resource for A.I.D. Assistance
B. Functional Assistance Programs to Create Condi-
tions for Fertility Decline
C. Food for Peace Program and Population
Section III International Organizations and other Mul-
tilateral Population Programs
A. UN Organization and Specialized Agencies
B. Encouraging Private Organizations
Section IV Provision and Development of Family
Planning Services, Information and Tech-
A. Research to Improve Fertility Control Technology
B. Development of Low-Cost Delivery Systems
C. Utilization of Mass Media and Satellite Communi-
cations System for Family Planning
Section V Action to Develop Worldwide Political and
Popular Commitment to Population Stability
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY - Index
WORLD DEMOGRAPHIC TRENDS - Index
1. World Population growth since World
War II is quantitatively and qualitatively different from any previous epoch in
human history. The rapid reduction in death rates, unmatched by corresponding
birth rate reductions, has brought total growth rates close to 2 percent a year,
compared with about 1 percent before World War II, under 0.5 percent in 1750-1900,
and far lower rates before 1750. The effect is to double the world's population
in 35 years instead of 100 years. Almost 80 million are now being added each year,
compared with 10 million in 1900.
2. The second new feature of population
trends is the sharp differentiation between rich and poor countries. Since 1950,
population in the former group has been growing at 0 to 1.5 percent per year,
and in the latter at 2.0 to 3.5 percent (doubling in 20 to 35 years). Some of
the highest rates of increase are in areas already densely populated and with
a weak resource base.
3. Because of the momentum of population
dynamics, reductions in birth rates affect total numbers only slowly. High birth
rates in the recent past have resulted in a high proportion in the youngest
age groups, so that there will continue to be substantial population increases
over many years even if a two-child family should become the norm in the future.
Policies to reduce fertility will have their main effects on total numbers only
after several decades. However, if future numbers are to be kept within reasonable
bounds, it is urgent that measures to reduce fertility be started and made effective
in the 1970's and 1980's. Moreover, programs started now to reduce birth rates
will have short run advantages for developing countries in lowered demands on
food, health and educational and other services and in enlarged capacity to
contribute to productive investments, thus accelerating development.
4. U.N. estimates use the 3.6 billion
population of 1970 as a base (there are nearly 4 billion now) and project from
about 6 billion to 8 billion people for the year 2000 with the U.S. medium estimate
at 6.4 billion. The U.S. medium projections show a world population of 12 billion
by 2075 which implies a five-fold increase in south and southeast Asia and in
Latin American and a seven-fold increase in Africa, compared with a doubling
in east Asia and a 40% increase in the presently developed countries (see Table 1). Most demographers,
including the U.N. and the U.S. Population Council, regard the range of 10 to
13 billion as the most likely level for world population stability, even with
intensive efforts at fertility control. (These figures assume, that sufficient
food could be produced and distributed to avoid limitation through famines.)
ADEQUACY OF WORLD FOOD SUPPLIES - Index
5. Growing populations will have a
serious impact on the need for food especially in the poorest, fastest growing
LDCs. While under normal weather conditions and assuming food production growth
in line with recent trends, total world agricultural production could expand faster
than population, there will nevertheless be serious problems in food distribution
and financing, making shortages, even at today's poor nutrition levels, probable
in many of the larger more populous LDC regions. Even today 10 to 20 million people
die each year due, directly or indirectly, to malnutrition. Even more serious
is the consequence of major crop failures which are likely to occur from time
6. The most serious consequence
for the short and middle term is the possibility of massive famines in certain
parts of the world, especially the poorest regions. World needs for food rise
by 2-1/2 percent or more per year (making a modest allowance for improved diets
and nutrition) at a time when readily available fertilizer and well-watered
land is already largely being utilized. Therefore, additions to food production
must come mainly from higher yields. Countries with large population growth
cannot afford constantly growing imports, but for them to raise food output
steadily by 2 to 4 percent over the next generation or two is a formidable challenge.
Capital and foreign exchange requirements for intensive agriculture are heavy,
and are aggravated by energy cost increases and fertilizer scarcities and price
rises. The institutional, technical, and economic problems of transforming traditional
agriculture are also very difficult to overcome.
7. In addition, in some overpopulated
regions, rapid population growth presses on a fragile environment in ways that
threaten longer-term food production: through cultivation of marginal lands,
overgrazing, desertification, deforestation, and soil erosion, with consequent
destruction of land and pollution of water, rapid siltation of reservoirs, and
impairment of inland and coastal fisheries.
MINERALS AND FUEL - Index
8. Rapid population growth is not
in itself a major factor in pressure on depletable resources (fossil fuels and
other minerals), since demand for them depends more on levels of industrial output
than on numbers of people. On the other hand, the world is increasingly dependent
on mineral supplies from developing countries, and if rapid population frustrates
their prospects for economic development and social progress, the resulting instability
may undermine the conditions for expanded output and sustained flows of such resources.
9. There will be serious problems
for some of the poorest LDCs with rapid population growth. They will increasingly
find it difficult to pay for needed raw materials and energy. Fertilizer, vital
for their own agricultural production, will be difficult to obtain for the next
few years. Imports for fuel and other materials will cause grave problems which
could impinge on the U.S., both through the need to supply greater financial
support and in LDC efforts to obtain better terms of trade through higher prices
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND POPULATION GROWTH - Index
10. Rapid population growth creates
a severe drag on rates of economic development otherwise attainable, sometimes
to the point of preventing any increase in per capita incomes. In addition to
the overall impact on per capita incomes, rapid population growth seriously affects
a vast range of other aspects of the quality of life important to social and economic
progress in the LDCs.
11. Adverse economic factors which
generally result from rapid population growth include:
12. While GNP increased per annum
at an average rate of 5 percent in LDCs over the last decade, the population increase
of 2.5 percent reduced the average annual per capita growth rate to only
2.5 percent. In many heavily populated areas this rate was 2 percent or less.
In the LDCs hardest hit by the oil crisis, with an aggregate population of 800
million, GNP increases may be reduced to less than 1 percent per capita
per year for the remainder of the 1970's. For the poorest half of the populations
of these countries, with average incomes of less than $100, the prospect is for
no growth or retrogression for this period.
- reduced family savings and domestic investment;
- increased need for large amounts of foreign exchange
for food imports;
- intensification of severe unemployment and underemployment;
- the need for large expenditures for services such as
dependency support, education, and health which would be used for more productive
- the concentration of developmental resources on increasing
food production to ensure survival for a larger population, rather than on
improving living conditions for smaller total numbers.
13. If significant progress can
be made in slowing population growth, the positive impact on growth of GNP and
per capita income will be significant. Moreover, economic and social
progress will probably contribute further to the decline in fertility rates.
14. High birth rates appear to
stem primarily from:
a. inadequate information about and availability of means
of fertility control;
b. inadequate motivation for reduced numbers of children
combined with motivation for many children resulting from still high infant
and child mortality and need for support in old age; and
c. the slowness of change in family preferences in response
to changes in environment.
15. The universal objective of
increasing the world's standard of living dictates that economic growth outpace
population growth. In many high population growth areas of the world, the largest
proportion of GNP is consumed, with only a small amount saved. Thus, a small
proportion of GNP is available for investment -- the "engine" of economic growth.
Most experts agree that, with fairly constant costs per acceptor, expenditures
on effective family planning services are generally one of the most cost effective
investments for an LDC country seeking to improve overall welfare and per capita
economic growth. We cannot wait for overall modernization and development to
produce lower fertility rates naturally since this will undoubtedly take many
decades in most developing countries, during which time rapid population growth
will tend to slow development and widen even more the gap between rich and poor.
16. The interrelationships between
development and population growth are complex and not wholly understood. Certain
aspects of economic development and modernization appear to be more directly
related to lower birth rates than others. Thus certain development programs
may bring a faster demographic transition to lower fertility rates than other
aspects of development. The World Population Plan of Action adopted at the World
Population Conference recommends that countries working to affect fertility
levels should give priority to development programs and health and education
strategies which have a decisive effect on fertility. International cooperation
should give priority to assisting such national efforts. These programs include:
(a) improved health care and nutrition to reduce child mortality, (b) education
and improved social status for women; (c) increased female employment; (d) improved
old-age security; and (e) assistance for the rural poor, who generally have
the highest fertility, with actions to redistribute income and resources including
providing privately owned farms. However, one cannot proceed simply from identification
of relationships to specific large-scale operational programs. For example,
we do not yet know of cost-effective ways to encourage increased female employment,
particularly if we are concerned about not adding to male unemployment. We do
not yet know what specific packages of programs will be most cost effective
in many situations.
17. There is need for more information
on cost effectiveness of different approaches on both the "supply" and the "demand"
side of the picture. On the supply side, intense efforts are required
to assure full availability by 1980 of birth control information and means to
all fertile individuals, especially in rural areas [emphasis added].
Improvement is also needed in methods of birth control most acceptable and useable
by the rural poor. On the demand side, further experimentation and implementation
action projects and programs are needed. In particular, more research is needed
on the motivation of the poorest who often have the highest fertility rates.
Assistance programs must be more precisely targeted to this group than in the
18. It may well be that desired
family size will not decline to near replacement levels until the lot of the
LDC rural poor improves to the extent that the benefits of reducing family size
appear to them to outweigh the costs. For urban people, a rapidly growing element
in the LDCs, the liabilities of having too many children are already becoming
apparent. Aid recipients and donors must also emphasize development and improvements
in the quality of life of the poor, if significant progress is to be made in
controlling population growth. Although it was adopted primarily for other reasons,
the new emphasis of AID's legislation on problems of the poor (which is echoed
in comparable changes in policy emphasis by other donors and by an increasing
number of LDC's) is directly relevant to the conditions required for fertility
POLITICAL EFFECTS OF POPULATION FACTORS - Index
19. The political consequences of
current population factors in the LDCs -- rapid growth, internal migration, high
percentages of young people, slow improvement in living standards, urban concentrations,
and pressures for foreign migration -- are damaging to the internal stability
and international relations of countries in whose advancement the U.S. is interested,
thus creating political or even national security problems for the U.S. In a broader
sense, there is a major risk of severe damage to world economic, political,
and ecological systems and, as these systems begin to fail, to our humanitarian
values [emphasis added].
20. The pace of internal migration
from countryside to over-swollen cities is greatly intensified by rapid population
growth. Enormous burdens are placed on LDC governments for public administration,
sanitation, education, police, and other services, and urban slum dwellers (though
apparently not recent migrants) may serve as a volatile, violent force which
threatens political stability.
21. Adverse socio-economic conditions
generated by these and related factors may contribute to high and increasing
levels of child abandonment, juvenile delinquency, chronic and growing underemployment
and unemployment, petty thievery, organized brigandry, food riots, separatist
movements, communal massacres, revolutionary actions and counter-revolutionary
coups. Such conditions also detract from the environment needed to attract the
foreign capital vital to increasing levels of economic growth in these areas.
If these conditions result in expropriation of foreign interests, such action,
from an economic viewpoint, is not in the best interests of either the investing
country or the host government.
22. In international relations,
population factors are crucial in, and often determinants of, violent conflicts
in developing areas. Conflicts that are regarded in primarily political terms
often have demographic roots. Recognition of these relationships appears crucial
to any understanding or prevention of such hostilities.
GENERAL GOALS AND REQUIREMENTS FOR DEALING WITH RAPID
POPULATION GROWTH - Index
23. The central question for world
population policy in the year 1974, is whether mankind is to remain on a track
toward an ultimate population of 12 to 15 billion -- implying a five to seven-fold
increase in almost all the underdeveloped world outside of China -- or whether
(despite the momentum of population growth) it can be switched over to the course
of earliest feasible population stability -- implying ultimate totals of 8 to
9 billions and not more than a three or four-fold increase in any major region.
24. What are the stakes? We do
not know whether technological developments will make it possible to feed over
8 much less 12 billion people in the 21st century. We cannot be entirely certain
that climatic changes in the coming decade will not create great difficulties
in feeding a growing population, especially people in the LDCs who live under
increasingly marginal and more vulnerable conditions. There exists at least
the possibility that present developments point toward Malthusian conditions
for many regions of the world.
25. But even if survival for these
much larger numbers is possible, it will in all likelihood be bare survival,
with all efforts going in the good years to provide minimum nutrition and utter
dependence in the bad years on emergency rescue efforts from the less populated
and richer countries of the world. In the shorter run -- between now and the
year 2000 -- the difference between the two courses can be some perceptible
material gain in the crowded poor regions, and some improvement in the relative
distribution of intra-country per capita income between rich and poor,
as against permanent poverty and the widening of income gaps. A much more vigorous
effort to slow population growth can also mean a very great difference between
enormous tragedies of malnutrition and starvation as against only serious chronic
POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS - Index
26. There is no single approach which
will "solve" the population problem. The complex social and economic factors involved
call for a comprehensive strategy with both bilateral and multilateral elements.
At the same time actions and programs must be tailored to specific countries and
groups. Above all, LDCs themselves must play the most important role to achieve
27. Coordination among the bilateral
donors and multilateral organizations is vital to any effort to moderate population
growth. Each kind of effort will be needed for worldwide results.
28. World policy and programs in
the population field should incorporate two major objectives:
specific goals in this area are difficult to state, our aim should be for the
world to achieve a replacement level of fertility, (a two-child family on the
average), by about the year 2000 [emphasis added]. This will require
the present 2 percent growth rate to decline to 1.7 percent within a decade and
to 1.1 percent by 2000. Compared to the U.N medium projection, this goal would
result in 500 million fewer people in 2000 and about 3 billion fewer in 2050.
Attainment of this goal will require greatly intensified population programs
[emphasis added]. A basis for developing national population growth control targets
to achieve this world target is contained in the World Population Plan of Action.
- (a) actions to accommodate continued population growth
up to 6 billions by the mid-21st century without massive starvation or total
frustration of developmental hopes; and
- (b) actions to keep the ultimate level as close as possible
to 8 billions rather than permitting it to reach 10 billions, 13 billions,
30. The World Population
Plan of Action is not self-enforcing and will require vigorous efforts by interested
countries, U.N. agencies and other international bodies to make it effective.
U.S. leadership is essential [emphasis added]. The strategy must include
the following elements and actions:
31. The World Population Plan
of Action and the resolutions adopted by consensus by 137 nations at the August
1974 U.N. World Population Conference, though not ideal, provide an excellent
framework for developing a worldwide system of population/family planning programs
[emphasis added]. (The Plan of Action appears in Appendix 1.) We should
use them to generate U.N. agency and national leadership for an all-out effort
to lower growth rates. Constructive action by the U.S. will further our objectives.
To this end we should:
- (a) Concentration on key countries. Assistance
for population moderation should give primary emphasis to the largest and
fastest growing developing countries where there is special U.S. political
and strategic interest. Those countries are: India, Bangladesh, Pakistan,
Nigeria, Mexico, Indonesia, Brazil, the Philippines, Thailand, Egypt, Turkey,
Ethiopia and Colombia. Together, they account for 47 percent of the world's
current population increase. (It should be recognized that at present AID
bilateral assistance to some of these countries may not be acceptable.) Bilateral
assistance, to the extent that funds are available, will be given to other
countries, considering such factors as population growth, need for external
assistance, long-term U.S. interests and willingness to engage in self-help.
Multilateral programs must necessarily have a wider coverage and the bilateral
programs of other national donors will be shaped to their particular interests.
At the same time, the U.S. will look to the multilateral agencies -- especially
the U.N. Fund for Population Activities which already has projects in over
80 countries -- to increase population assistance on a broader basis with
increased U.S. contributions. This is desirable in terms of U.S. interests
and necessary in political terms in the United Nations. But progress nevertheless,
must be made in the key 13 and our limited resources should give major emphasis
- (b) Integration of population factors and population
programs into country development planning. As called for by the world
Population Plan of Action, developing countries and those aiding them should
specifically take population factors into account in national planning and
include population programs in such plans.
- (c) Increased assistance for family planning services,
information and technology. This is a vital aspect of any world population
program. (1) Family planning information and materials based on present technology
should be made fully available as rapidly as possible to the 85% of the populations
in key LDCs not now reached, essentially rural poor who have the highest fertility.
(2) Fundamental and developmental research should be expanded, aimed at simple,
low-cost, effective, safe, long-lasting and acceptable methods of fertility
control. Support by all federal agencies for biomedical research in this field
should be increased by $60 million annually.
- (d) Creating conditions conducive to fertility decline.
For its own merits and consistent with the recommendations of the World Population
Plan of Action, priority should be given in the general aid program to selective
development policies in sectors offering the greatest promise of increased
motivation for smaller family size. In many cases pilot programs and experimental
research will be needed as guidance for later efforts on a larger scale. The
preferential sectors include:
While AID has information on the relative importance of
the new major socio-economic factors that lead to lower birth rates, much
more research and experimentation need to be done to determine what cost effective
programs and policy will lead to lower birth rates.
- Providing minimal levels of education, especially
- Reducing infant mortality, including through simple
low-cost health care networks;
- Expanding wage employment, especially for women;
- Developing alternatives to children as a source
of old age security;
- Increasing income of the poorest, especially in
rural areas, including providing privately owned farms;
- Education of new generations on the desirability
of smaller families.
- (e) Food and agricultural assistance is vital for
any population sensitive development strategy. The provision of adequate
food stocks for a growing population in times of shortage is crucial. Without
such a program for the LDCs there is considerable chance that such shortage
will lead to conflict and adversely affect population goals and developmental
efforts. Specific recommendations are included in Section IV(c) of this study.
- (f) Development of a worldwide political and popular
commitment to population stabilization is fundamental to any effective strategy.
This requires the support and commitment of key LDC leaders. This will only
take place if they clearly see the negative impact of unrestricted population
growth and believe it is possible to deal with this question through governmental
action. The U.S. should encourage LDC leaders to take the lead in advancing
family planning and population stabilization both within multilateral organizations
and through bilateral contacts with other LDCs. This will require that the
President and the Secretary of State treat the subject of population growth
control as a matter of paramount importance and address it specifically in
their regular contacts with leaders of other governments, particularly LDCs.
32. As measures to increase understanding
of population factors by LDC leaders and to strengthen population planning in
national development plans, we should carry out the recommendations in Part II,
Section VI, including:
- (a) Strongly support the World Population Plan of Action
and the adoption of its appropriate provisions in national and other programs.
- (b) Urge the adoption by national programs of specific
population goals including replacement levels of fertility for DCs and LDCs
- (c) After suitable preparation in the U.S.,
announce a U.S. goal to maintain our present national average fertility no
higher than replacement level and attain near stability by 2000 [emphasis
- (d) Initiate an international cooperative strategy of
national research programs on human reproduction and fertility control covering
biomedical and socio-economic factors, as proposed by the U.S. Delegation
- (e) Act on our offer at Bucharest to collaborate with
other interested donors and U.N. agencies to aid selected countries to develop
low cost preventive health and family planning services.
- (f) Work directly with donor countries and through the
U.N. Fund for Population Activities and the OECD/DAC to increase bilateral
and multilateral assistance for population programs.
Beyond these activities which are essentially directed at
national interests, we must assure that a broader educational concept is developed
to convey an acute understanding to national leaders of the interrelation of national
interests and world population growth.
- (a) Consideration of population factors and population
policies in all Country Assistance Strategy Papers (CASP) and Development
Assistance Program (DAP) multi-year strategy papers.
- (b) Prepare projections of population growth individualized
for countries with analyses of development of each country and discuss them
with national leaders.
- (c) Provide for greatly increased training programs
for senior officials of LDCs in the elements of demographic economics.
- (d) Arrange for familiarization programs at U.N. Headquarters
in New York for ministers of governments, senior policy level officials and
comparably influential leaders from private life.
- (e) Assure assistance to LDC leaders in integrating
population factors in national plans, particularly as they relate to health
services, education, agricultural resources and development, employment, equitable
distribution of income and social stability.
- (f) Also assure assistance to LDC leaders in relating
population policies and family planning programs to major sectors of development:
health, nutrition, agriculture, education, social services, organized labor,
women's activities, and community development.
- (g) Undertake initiatives to implement the Percy Amendment
regarding improvement in the status of women.
- (h) Give emphasis in assistance to programs on development
of rural areas.
33. We must take care that our
activities should not give the appearance to the LDCs of an industrialized country
policy directed against the LDCs. Caution must be taken that in any
approaches in this field we support in the LDCs are ones we can support within
this country. "Third World" leaders should be in the forefront and obtain the
credit for successful programs. In this context it is important to demonstrate
to LDC leaders that such family planning programs have worked and can work within
a reasonable period of time.
34. To help assure others of our
intentions we should indicate our emphasis on the right of individuals and couples
to determine freely and responsibly the number and spacing of their children
and to have information, education and means to do so, and our continued interest
in improving the overall general welfare. We should use the authority provided
by the World Population Plan of Action to advance the principles that 1) responsibility
in parenthood includes responsibility to the children and the community and
2) that nations in exercising their sovereignty to set population policies should
take into account the welfare of their neighbors and the world. To strengthen
the worldwide approach, family planning programs should be supported by multilateral
organizations wherever they can provide the most efficient means.
35. To support such family planning
and related development assistance efforts there is need to increase public
and leadership information in this field. We recommend increased emphasis on
mass media, newer communications technology and other population education and
motivation programs by the UN and USIA. Higher priority should be given to these
information programs in this field worldwide.
36. In order to provide the necessary
resources and leadership, support by the U.S. public and Congress will be necessary.
A significant amount of funds will be required for a number of years. High level
personal contact by the Secretary of State and other officials on the subject
at an early date with Congressional counterparts is needed. A program for this
purpose should be developed by OES with H and AID.
37. There is an alternate view
which holds that a growing number of experts believe that the population situation
is already more serious and less amenable to solution through voluntary measures
than is generally accepted. It holds that, to prevent even more widespread food
shortage and other demographic catastrophes than are generally anticipated,
even stronger measures are required and some fundamental, very difficult moral
issues need to be addressed. These include, for example, our own consumption
patterns, mandatory programs, tight control of our food resources. In view of
the seriousness of these issues, explicit consideration of them should begin
in the Executive Branch, the Congress and the U.N. soon. (See the end of Section
I for this viewpoint.)
the actions discussed above (in paragraphs 1-36), will require a significant
expansion in AID funds for population/family planning. A number of major actions
in the area of creating conditions for fertility decline can be funded from
resources available to the sectors in question (e.g., education, agriculture).
Other actions, including family planning services, research and experimental
activities on factors affecting fertility, come under population funds. We
recommend increases in AID budget requests to the Congress on the order of $35-50
million annually through FY 1980 (above the $137.5 million requested for FY
1975) [emphasis added]. This funding would cover both bilateral programs
and contributions to multilateral organizations. However, the level
of funds needed in the future could change significantly, depending on such
factors as major breakthroughs in fertility control technologies and LDC receptivities
to population assistance [emphasis added]. To help develop, monitor,
and evaluate the expanded actions discussed above, AID is likely to need additional
direct hire personnel in the population/family planning area. As a corollary
to expanded AID funding levels for population, efforts must be made to encourage
increased contributions by other donors and recipient countries to help reduce
rapid population growth.
POLICY FOLLOW-UP AND COORDINATION
39. This world wide population strategy
involves very complex and difficult questions. Its implementation will require
very careful coordination and specific application in individual circumstances.
Further work is greatly needed in examining the mix of our assistance strategy
and its most efficient application. A number of agencies are interested and involved.
Given this, there appears to be a need for a better and higher level mechanism
to refine and develop policy in this field and to coordinate its implementation
beyond this NSSM. The following options are suggested for consideration:
Option (a) is supported by State, Treasury,
- (a) That the NSC Under Secretaries Committee be given
responsibility for policy and executive review of this subject:
- Because of the major foreign policy implications
of the recommended population strategy a high level focus on policy
is required for the success of such a major effort.
- With the very wide agency interests in this
topic there is need for an accepted and normal interagency process
for effective analysis and disinterested policy development and implementation
within the N.S.C. system.
- Staffing support for implementation of the NSSM-200
follow-on exists within the USC framework including utilization of
the Office of Population of the Department of State as well as other.
- USC has provided coordination and follow-up
in major foreign policy areas involving a number of agencies as is
the case in this study.
- The USC would not be within the normal policy-making
framework for development policy as would be in the case with the
- The USC is further removed from the process
of budget development and review of the AID Population Assistance
- (b) That when its establishment is authorized by the
President, the Development Coordination Committee, headed by the AID Administrator
be given overall responsibility:*
- Pros: (Provided by AID)
- It is precisely for coordination of this type
of development issue involving a variety of U.S. policies toward LDCs
that the Congress directed the establishment of the DCC.
- The DCC is also the body best able to relate
population issues to other development issues, with which they are
- The DCC has the advantage of stressing technical
and financial aspects of U.S. population policies, thereby minimizing
political complications frequently inherent in population programs.
- It is, in AID's view, the coordinating body
best located to take an overview of all the population activities
now taking place under bilateral and multilateral auspices.
- While the DCC will doubtless have substantial
technical competence, the entire range of political and other factors
bearing on our global population strategy might be more effectively
considered by a group having a broader focus than the DCC.
- The DCC is not within the N.S.C. system which
provides a more direct access to both the President and the principal
foreign policy decision-making mechanism.
- The DCC might overly emphasize purely developmental
aspects of population and under emphasize other important elements.
- (c) That the NSC/CIEP be asked to lead an Interdepartmental
Group for this subject to insure follow-up interagency coordination, and further
policy development. (No participating Agency supports this option, therefore
it is only included to present a full range of possibilities).
Defense (ISA and JCS), Agriculture, HEW,
Commerce NSC and CIA.**
Option (b) is supported by AID.
Under any of the above options, there should be an annual
review of our population policy to examine progress, insure our programs are
in keeping with the latest information in this field, identify possible deficiencies,
and recommend additional action at the appropriate level.***
SOME KEY POINTS FROM THE MAIN BODY OF THE REPORT - Index
All readers are urged to read the detailed main body of the
report which is presented in full in Appendix Two. This
will give the reader a better appreciation of the gravity of this new threat to
U.S. and global security and the actions the many departments of our government
felt were necessary in order to address this grave new threat -- a threat greater
than nuclear war. These 20 important points will be discussed in the remaining
chapters of this book.
On the magnitude and urgency of the problem:
- "...World population growth is widely recognized within
the Government as a current danger of the highest magnitude calling for urgent
measures." [Page 194]
- "...it is of the utmost urgency that governments now
recognize the facts and implications of population growth, determine the ultimate
population sizes that make sense for their countries and start vigorous programs
at once to achieve their desired goals." [Page 15]
- "...population factors are indeed critical in, and often
determinants of, violent conflict in developing areas. Segmental (religious,
social, racial) differences, migration, rapid population growth, differential
levels of knowledge and skills, rural/urban differences, population pressure
and the spatial location of population in relation to resources -- in this
rough order of importance -- all appear to be important contributions to conflict
and violence...Clearly, conflicts which are regarded in primarily political
terms often have demographic roots. Recognition of these relationships appears
crucial to any understanding or prevention of such hostilities." [Page 66]
- "Where population size is greater than available resources,
or is expanding more rapidly than the available resources, there is a tendency
toward internal disorders and violence and, sometimes, disruptive international
policies or violence." [Page 69]
- "In developing countries, the burden of population factors,
added to others, will weaken unstable governments, often only marginally effective
in good times, and open the way to extremist regimes." [Page 84]
- The report gives three examples of population wars:
the El Salvador-Honduras "Soccer War" [Page 71]; the Nigerian Civil War [Page
71]; and, the Pakistan-India-Bangladesh War, 1970-71. [Page 72]
- "...population growth over the years will seriously
negate reasonable prospects for the sound social and economic development
of the peoples involved." [Page 98]
- "Past experience gives little assistance to predicting
the course of these developments because the speed of today's population growth,
migrations, and urbanization far exceeds anything the world has ever seen
before. Moreover, the consequences of such population factors can no longer
be evaded by moving to new hunting or grazing lands, by conquering new territory,
by discovering or colonizing new continents, or by emigration in large numbers.
The world has ample warning that we all must make more
rapid efforts at social and economic development to avoid or mitigate these
gloomy prospects. We should be warned also that we all must move as rapidly
as possible toward stabilizing national and world population growth." [Page
Leadership is vital: - Index
- "Successful family planning requires strong local dedication
and commitment that cannot over the long run be enforced from the outside."
- "...it is vital that leaders of major LDCs themselves
take the lead in advancing family planning and population stabilization, not
only within the UN and other international organizations but also through
bilateral contacts with leaders of other LDCs." [Page 112]
- "These programs will have only modest success until
there is much stronger and wider acceptance of their real importance by leadership
groups. Such acceptance and support will be essential to assure that the population
information, education and service programs have vital moral backing, administrative
capacity, technical skills and government financing." [Page 195]
What must be done: - Index
- "Control of population growth and migration must be
a part of any program for improvement of lasting value." [Page 81]
- "...the Conference adopted by acclamation (only the
Holy See stating a general reservation) a complete World Population Plan of
Action" [Page 87]
- "Our objective should be to assure that developing countries
make family planning information, education and means available to all their
peoples by 1980." [Page 130]
- "Only nominal attention is [currently] given to population
education or sex education in schools..." [Page 158] "Recommendation: That
US agencies stress the importance of education of the next generation of parents,
starting in elementary schools, toward a two-child family ideal. That AID
stimulate specific efforts to develop means of educating children of elementary
school age to the ideal of the two-child family..." [Page 159]
- "...there is general agreement that up to the point
when cost per acceptor rises rapidly, family planning expenditures are generally
considered the best investment a country can make in its own future," [Page
Contradiction of the Holy See's answer to the population
problem: - Index
- "Clearly development per se is a powerful determinant
of fertility. However, since it is unlikely that most LDCs will develop sufficiently
during the next 25-30 years, it is crucial to identify those sectors that
most directly and powerfully affect fertility." [Page 99]
- "There is also even less cause for optimism on the rapidity
of socio-economic progress that would generate rapid fertility reduction in
the poor LDCs, than on the feasibility of extending family planning services
to those in their populations who may wish to take advantage of them." [Page
- "But we can be certain of the desirable direction of
change and can state as a plausible objective the target of achieving replacement
fertility rates by the year 2000." [Page 99]
Abortion is vital to the solution: - Index
- "While the agencies participating in this study have
no specific recommendations to propose on abortion, the following issues are
believed important and should be considered in the context of a global population
strategy...Certain facts about abortion need to be appreciated:
" -- No country has reduced its population growth without
resorting to abortion". [Page 182]
" -- Indeed, abortion, legal and illegal, now has become
the most widespread fertility control method in use in the world today."
" -- It would be unwise to restrict abortion research
for the following reasons: 1) The persistent and ubiquitous nature of abortion.
2) Widespread lack of safe abortion techniques..." [Page 185]
* AID expects the DCC will have the following
composition: The Administrator of AID as Chairman; the Under Secretary of State
for Economic Affairs; the Under Secretary of Treasury for Monetary Affairs; the
Under Secretaries of Commerce, Agriculture and Labor; an Associate Director of
OMB; the Executive Director of CIEP, STR; a representative of the NSC; the Presidents
of the EX-IM Bank and OPIC; and any other agency when items of interest to them
are under discussion.)
** Department of Commerce supports
the option of placing the population policy formulation mechanism under the
auspices of the USC but believes that any detailed economic questions resulting
from proposed population policies be explored through existing domestic and
international economic policy channels.
*** AID believes these reviews undertaken
only periodically might look at selected areas or at the entire range of population
policy depending on problems and needs which arise.